Entrepreneur, investor, and business magnate. He is the founder, CEO, and Chief Engineer at SpaceX; early-stage investor, CEO, and Product Architect of Tesla, Inc.; founder of The Boring Company; and co-founder of Neuralink and OpenAI. With an estimated net worth of around US$273 billion as of April 2022, Musk is the wealthiest person in the world according to both the Bloomberg Billionaires Index and the Forbes real-time billionaires list.Musk was born to a Canadian mother and White South African father, and raised in Pretoria, South Africa. He briefly attended the University of Pretoria before moving to Canada at age 17 to avoid conscription. He was enrolled at Queen's University and transferred to the University of Pennsylvania two years later, where he received a bachelor's degree in economics and physics. He moved to California in 1995 to attend Stanford University but decided instead to pursue a business career, co-founding the web software company Zip2 with his brother Kimbal. The startup was acquired by Compaq for $307 million in 1999. The same year, Musk co-founded online bank X.com, which merged with Confinity in 2000 to form PayPal. The company was bought by eBay in 2002 for $1.5 billion. In 2002, Musk founded SpaceX, an aerospace manufacturer and space transport services company, of which he is CEO and Chief Engineer. In 2004, he joined electric vehicle manufacturer Tesla Motors, Inc. (now Tesla, Inc.) as chairman and product architect, becoming its CEO in 2008. In 2006, he helped create SolarCity, a solar energy services company that was later acquired by Tesla and became Tesla Energy. In 2015, he co-founded OpenAI, a nonprofit research company that promotes friendly artificial intelligence. In 2016, he co-founded Neuralink, a neurotechnology company focused on developing brain–computer interfaces, and founded The Boring Company, a tunnel construction company. Musk has proposed the Hyperloop, a high-speed vactrain transportation system. Musk has been criticized for unorthodox and unscientific stances and highly publicized controversial statements. In 2018, he was sued by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for falsely tweeting that he had secured funding for a private takeover of Tesla. He settled with the SEC, temporarily stepping down from his chairmanship and agreeing to limitations on his Twitter usage. In 2019, he won a defamation trial brought against him by a British caver who advised in the Tham Luang cave rescue. Musk has also been criticized for spreading misinformation about the COVID-19 pandemic and for his other views on such matters as artificial intelligence, cryptocurrency, and public transport.
Vernor Steffen Vinge ( (listen); born October 2, 1944) is an American science fiction author and retired professor. He taught mathematics and computer science at San Diego State University. He is the first wide-scale popularizer of the technological singularity concept and perhaps the first to present a fictional "cyberspace". He has won the Hugo Award for his novels and novellas A Fire Upon the Deep (1992), A Deepness in the Sky (1999), Rainbows End (2006), Fast Times at Fairmont High (2002), and The Cookie Monster (2004).
Timothy Zahn (born September 1, 1951) is an American writer of science fiction and fantasy. He is known best for his prolific collection of Star Wars books, chiefly the Thrawn series, and has published several other series of sci-fi and fantasy novels of his own original creation, in addition to many works of short fiction.
Rocket science. A term we all use to describe something incredibly difficult. Trying to grasp all of the concepts involved in rocket science can be incredibly intimidating. My name’s Tim Dodd but I'm better known as the Everyday Astronaut. Recently I fell head over heals in love with spaceflight. My appreciation and curiosity for the subject grew into an obsession. Before you knew it, all I wanted to do was learn more and more. And the more I learned, the more I wanted to share what was making me so excited. But as someone who dropped out of college and has no technical background or degree… I really felt unqualified for the job of explaining rocket science to anyone. But the fact of the matter is, if I can learn this stuff, anyone can. Rocket science is awesome, and you don’t need to be a rocket scientist to be excited. Everyday Astronaut. Bringing space down to Earth for everyday people.
Andrew L. Chaikin (born June 24, 1956) is an American author, speaker and science journalist. He lives in Vermont. He is the author of A Man on the Moon, a detailed description of the Apollo missions to the Moon. This book formed the basis for From the Earth to the Moon, a 12-part HBO miniseries. From 1999 to 2001, Chaikin served as executive editor for space and science at Space.com. From 2008 to 2011, he was a faculty member for Montana State University in Bozeman, Montana. In 2013, he wrote and performed the narration on a NASA video re-creating the taking of the famous Earthrise photo during the Apollo 8 mission.His book A Man on the Moon: One Giant Leap states that he grew up in Great Neck, New York, and, while studying geology at Brown University, worked at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory on the Viking program.
Scott Joseph Kelly (born February 21, 1964) is an American engineer, retired astronaut, and naval aviator. A veteran of four space flights, Kelly commanded the International Space Station (ISS) on Expeditions 26, 45, and 46. Kelly's first spaceflight was as pilot of Space Shuttle Discovery during STS-103 in December 1999. This was the third servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope, and lasted for just under eight days. Kelly's second spaceflight was as mission commander of STS-118, a 12-day Space Shuttle mission to the ISS in August 2007. Kelly's third spaceflight was as a crewmember on Expedition 25/26 on the ISS. He arrived at the ISS aboard Soyuz TMA-01M on 9 October 2010, and served as a flight engineer until he took over command of the station on 25 November 2010 at the start of Expedition 26. Expedition 26 ended on 16 March 2011 with the departure of Soyuz TMA-01M.In November 2012, Kelly and Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko were selected for a year-long mission to the ISS. Their year in space began with the launch of Soyuz TMA-16M on March 27, 2015, and they remained on the station for Expeditions 43, 44, 45, and 46. The mission ended on March 1, 2016, with the departure of Soyuz TMA-18M from the station.Kelly retired from NASA in 2016. His identical twin brother, Mark Kelly, is also a retired astronaut, and the junior U.S. senator from Arizona.
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