Benoit B. Mandelbrot (20 November 1924 – 14 October 2010) was a Polish-born French and American mathematician and polymath with broad interests in the practical sciences, especially regarding what he labeled as "the art of roughness" of physical phenomena and "the uncontrolled element in life". He referred to himself as a "fractalist" and is recognized for his contribution to the field of fractal geometry, which included coining the word "fractal", as well as developing a theory of "roughness and self-similarity" in nature.In 1936, while he was a child, Mandelbrot's family emigrated to France from Warsaw, Poland. After World War II ended, Mandelbrot studied mathematics, graduating from universities in Paris and the United States and receiving a master's degree in aeronautics from the California Institute of Technology. He spent most of his career in both the United States and France, having dual French and American citizenship. In 1958, he began a 35-year career at IBM, where he became an IBM Fellow, and periodically took leaves of absence to teach at Harvard University. At Harvard, following the publication of his study of U.S. commodity markets in relation to cotton futures, he taught economics and applied sciences. Because of his access to IBM's computers, Mandelbrot was one of the first to use computer graphics to create and display fractal geometric images, leading to his discovery of the Mandelbrot set in 1980. He showed how visual complexity can be created from simple rules. He said that things typically considered to be "rough", a "mess" or "chaotic", like clouds or shorelines, actually had a "degree of order". His math and geometry-centered research career included contributions to such fields as statistical physics, meteorology, hydrology, geomorphology, anatomy, taxonomy, neurology, linguistics, information technology, computer graphics, economics, geology, medicine, physical cosmology, engineering, chaos theory, econophysics, metallurgy and the social sciences.Toward the end of his career, he was Sterling Professor of Mathematical Sciences at Yale University, where he was the oldest professor in Yale's history to receive tenure. Mandelbrot also held positions at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Université Lille Nord de France, Institute for Advanced Study and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. During his career, he received over 15 honorary doctorates and served on many science journals, along with winning numerous awards. His autobiography, The Fractalist: Memoir of a Scientific Maverick, was published posthumously in 2012.
Caz Hildebrand is a creative partner at Here Design and the award-winning designer for Nigella Lawson, Yotam Ottolenghi, and Samuel and Samantha Clark of Moro amongst others. She is the coauthor of The Geometry of Pasta and the author of The Grammar of Spice and Herbarium.
Martin Lorenz, Ph.D., might well have become a cook, a comic artist or an architect, were it not for an internship he did at Müller+Volkmann in 1989. Lorenz began to study Communication Design in 1996 at the University of Applied Sciences in Darmstadt, Germany. After three years there, he moved to the Netherlands to study at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts (KABK) in The Hague where he graduated in 2001. That same year, Lorenz moved to Frankfurt, where he worked for the next four years as a creative director for the design agency Hort. In 2005, he quit his position to move to Barcelona where he co-founded TwoPoints.Net with Lupi Asensio. After a decade in Barcelona, he moved back to Germany. Lorenz successfully defended his dissertation on flexible visual systems in graphic design at the University of Barcelona in January 2016.
Eli Maor (born 1937), an historian of mathematics, is the author of several books about the history of mathematics. Eli Maor received his PhD at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology. He teaches the history of mathematics at Loyola University Chicago. Maor was the editor of the article on trigonometry for the Encyclopædia Britannica.Asteroid 226861 Elimaor, discovered at the Jarnac Observatory in 2004, was named in his honor. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 22 July 2013 (M.P.C. 84383).
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